Hardness in water is caused by certain salts. The main hardness causing ions are Calcium (Ca2+), Magnesium (Mg2+) and Bicarbonate (HCO3-). These ions or minerals are normally addressed as scale in the water causing scaling of pipes and equipment in drinking water and process water systems. Softening units offer a water purification solution for hard water and lime scale removal.
Through softening, the calcium and magnesium salts in the water are exchanged for sodium salts which do not cause the disadvantages of hard water.